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Founders of America

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Founders Of America

FROM THE EARLIEST MIGRATIONS
TO THE PRESENT

Francis Jennings

Such intrusion was beyond toleration by Louis XIV, “the Sun King,” who had taken personal charge of his government in 1661, intending to conquer a great empire and to rule it absolutely. He was as aggressive in North America as in Europe (though a mite thriftier) and his government took steps to stop the advance of those rude Carolinians. Thus, missions were founded at Cahokia (1699) and farther south where the Kaskaskia River falls into the Mississippi (1703).

 

Most important in terms of long-range strategy, the ministry chose Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville to campaign on the Gulf coast and in the Mississippi Valley to assure France’s control. Iberville was a veteran of such frontier struggles in New France. He promptly built Fort Maurepas (1699) at Biloxi (Mississippi), and laid the groundwork for a new colony of Louisiana which flourished in the eighteenth century and did indeed thrust the Carolinians back east of the Appalachians.


Ca. 1  Teotihuacán rose to prominence 
500  Identifiable remains of Hohokam, Anasazi, and Mogollon peoples (in U.S. Southwest) 
600  Beginnings of Cahokia (Ill.) 
Ca. 750  Teotihuacán abandoned 
Ca. 800  Mesoamericans in the Mississippi Valley; introduction to Mississippi Valley of improved variety of maize 
900-1110  Toltecs flourished at Tula 
1132  City of Texcoco founded according to Sahagún’s informants 
1200  Probable maximum population of North American Indians 
1000-1300  Anasazi communities flourished 
1300  Most recent migration of Delawares from west to east; Mississippians withdrew southward; Onondaga culture showed marked change; Apacheans began to separate into tribes 
1358  Tlatelolco founded 
1390  Traditional origin date of the League of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) 
1400  Athapascans migrated to U.S. Southwest 
1428  Alliance of Tenochtitlán, Tlatelolco, and Texcoco defeated Azcapotzalco 
1430  Ruler Itzcoatl ordered destruction and substitution of Tenochtitlán’s records 
1473  Tenochtitlán triumphed over Tlatelolco 
1486  Huitzilopochtli’s new temple dedicated in Tenochtitlán 
1490  Spain began to colonize the Canary Islands 
1492  Columbus made landfall in the Caribbean Sea 
1493  Pope Alexander VI granted Amerindian lands to the Spanish crown 
1494  Columbus sent 500 enslaved Indians to the market in Seville; Rome was invaded by French King Charles VIII 
1498  Census by Bartholomew Columbus listed 1,100,000 natives in half of Hispaniola 


1500  Royal decree arrived in Hispaniola making Indians vassals of the crown, otherwise personally free; it was generally ignored 
1502  Las Casas arrived in Hispaniola 
1511  Montesinos preached against slavery on Hispaniola 
1513  Balboa claimed for Spain the lands bordering the Pacific Ocean 
1515  Las Casas converted to anti-slavery for Indians 
1517  Martin Luther’s attack on Papal Indulgences 
1518  Population of Central Mexico estimated at 25,200,000 by Borah and Cook 
1519  Cortés landed on coast of Mexico 
1520  Smallpox carried from Cuba to Mexico 
1521  Ponce de León failed to conquer Florida 
1525  Probable time of Apacheans’ arrival in U.S. Southwest; three of Cortés letters describing conquest published 
1527  City of Rome plundered by army of Emperor Charles V 
1534, 1535  Jacques Cartier voyaged and wintered among St. Lawrence Iroquoians 
1536  Royal College of Santa Cruz founded in Mexico 
1539  De Soto invaded Florida and the Gulf region 
1540  Coronado invaded Acoma and other Pueblos 
1551  Emperor Charles V founded the National University of Mexico 
1559  Establishment of the Spanish Inquisition’s Index of forbidden books 
1564  Beginning of the annual fleet of trading galleons from Mexico to the Philippines 
1565  Menéndez massacred the French colony at Fort Caroline; San Agustin founded in Florida 
1570  Jesuit mission founded and destroyed by local Indians on Chesapeake Bay 
1571  The Inquisition came to New Spain; it had little interest in Indians 
1579  Francis Drake’s Golden Hind harbored near San Francisco on its trip around the world 
1580  By this year, 500 vessels per year took part in North American fisheries, making them one of Europe’s biggest industries 
1585
  Ralegh’s Roanoke colony founded 
1588  The Netherlands and England defeated the Spanish “Invincible Armada” 
1597  Guale Indians (of Georgia) rebelled against Spanish missions and were suppressed 
1598  Juan de Oñate conquered the Rio Grande Pueblos; Philip II of Spain died 
1607  Jamestown (Va.) founded 
1608  Quebec founded 
1609  Champlain aided Algonquins and Montagnais in war against Mohawks 


1610  Santa Fé founded 
1614  Dutch traders founded a year-round trading post on the upper Hudson River 
1620  New Plymouth founded 
1622  Powhatan rising against Virginia colony 
1624  Dutch West India Company founded Manhattan and built Fort Orange (Albany, N.Y.) 
1630  Massachusetts Bay founded 
1632  Publication of Chronicles of Bernal Diaz del Castillo 
1634  Maryland founded 
1636  Massachusetts and Connecticut warred against Pequots; Harvard College founded 
1638  New Sweden founded 
1640  New Netherland’s Willem Kieft warred against surrounding tribes, and had to hire English mercenaries to win. 
1642  Montreal founded; Maryland defeated Susquehannocks 
1643  Susquehannocks, with Swedish help, defeated Maryland; Mayhew mission began on Martha’s Vineyard 
1644  The second rising and suppression of the Powhatans 
1646  Massachusetts founded John Eliot’s mission with Col. Daniel Gookin as administrator 
1648  Semen Dezhnev’s voyage through the Bering Strait 
1649-1655  Mohawks and Senecas broke up the Huron confederation and drove the people out of Ontario, after which they scattered the other Iroquoian tribes between lakes Erie and Ontario 
1656  Jesuit mission founded near Ontario; Timucuans of Florida rebelled against missions and were suppressed 
1658  Mohawks ruined the mission near Onondaga; Esopus Indians rose against New Netherland 
1659  10,000 Florida Indians died of measles 
1659-1660  Des Groseilliers and Radisson traded near Hudson Bay for the first time 
1661  Louis XIV began personal rule 
1664  Second Esopus rising; New Netherland conquered by Duke of York’s fleet 
1666  De Tracy burned Mohawk villages 
1668  Des Groseilliers sailed from England to Hudson Bay wintered there at “Charles Fort”; Fathers Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquette founded Mission Saulte Ste. Marie 
1669  Praying Indians of Massachusetts attacked Mohawks and were defeated 
1670  Charles Town (S.C.) founded; English crown chartered Hudson’s Bay Company 
1671  Hudson’s Bay Company set up its first “factory”; Father Mar
 quette founded Mission Saint-Ignace at Michilimackinac; Dau
mont de Saint-Lusson officially claimed the entire Northwest for France; a French trading post was set up to compete with the Hudson’s Bay Company 
1673  Jolliet and Marquette found the Mississippi for the French, and canoed down it to Arkansas; Iroquois pleaded with Frontenac to save them from his rampaging allies 
1674  Edmund Andros arrived as New York’s governor 
1675  Intersocietal wars in New England and the Chesapeake Bay region 
1677  The Covenant Chain founded 
1680  South Carolina, with Shawnee allies, destroyed the Westos; Pueblos, outraged by efforts to ruin their religion, revolted, captured Santa Fe, and drove out Spaniards 
1681  French crown chartered Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson; English crown chartered colony of Pennsylvania; proprietors of Carolina ordered trade in guns as means of creating tribal dependence 
1682  La Salle cruised down the Mississippi River to its mouth; French took prisoner the crews of English ships in Hudson Bay; the Hudson’s Bay Company expanded from one post to three 
1684  Onondaga chief Garangula humiliated New France’s Governor La Barre 
1685  New York’s Governor Dongan sent a successful trading party from Albany to Michilimackinac 
1686  French intercepted a large trading party from Albany (intending to go to Michilimackinac) and confiscated its goods; French seized all but one Hudson Bay English posts 
1691  Jacques Le Tort’s expedition from Burlington (N.J.) via Susquehanna, Allegheny, Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri rivers made contact with “over forty” native peoples 
1692  Shawnee band, with Martin Chartier, arrived in Pennsylvania after leaving Tonty’s Fort St. Louis; Spaniards reconquered Pueblo Indians and restored Santa Fé 
1698  Dr. Daniel Coxe planned a giant English colony to be called Carolana which would conflict with territories pre-empted by the French; it never came to anything 
1699  Le Moyne de Iberville built Fort Maurepas at Biloxi (Miss.); French mission founded at Cahokia 
1700  Hopis massacred male villagers of Awatovi who had decided to receive Spanish priests 


 
1701  Iroquois made peace with New France and its allies; French founded Detroit; Iroquois refused to attack Detroit, but gave New York a 
“deed” to it; William Penn treated with the Susquehannocks for trade and cession of their valley 
1701-1713  Queen Anne’s War 
1703  French mission founded at junction of Kaskaskia River with Mississippi 
1708  By this date, Carolina traders had seized 10,000 to 12,000 Spanish mission Indians and had sold them into West Indian slavery 
1710  Treaty at Conestoga between Pennsylvania and the Iroquois League was kept secret from New York 
1711  Mobile (Ala.) made capital of Louisiana 
1712  Dubuisson and allies massacred Foxes fleeing from Detroit; Tuscaroras warred against Virginia; large-scale immigration began to Pennsylvania from Rhineland and Ulster; Louis XIV gave Louisiana to Antoine Crozat 
1715  Yamasees warred against South Carolina 
1716  Louvigny led a trading expedition in the guise of war against the Foxes 
1717  Antoine Crozat surrendered his profitless charter for Louisiana 
1718  New Orleans founded as new capital of Louisiana; John Law given Louisiana as the Company of the Indies which soon went bankrupt ; Michel Bisaillon gave information to James Logan that stimulated the English Board of Trade to aggressive new policies; William Penn died in England 
1724  Local French commander exterminated the Natchez nation to gain their lands; some survivors were given refuge and protection by the Chickasaws 
1728  Vitus Bering’s voyage through Bering Strait 
1730  French and allies massacred Foxes trekking eastward in hope of sanctuary among Iroquois 
1731  Company of the Indies surrendered its Louisiana charter 
1733  English colony of Georgia founded 
1734  French defeated by Foxes and allies in battle of Butte des Morts 
1737  Beauharnois made peace with Foxes under pressure from his Indian allies; the “Walking Purchase” took place in Pennsylvania 
1738  Gaultier de La Vérendyre made the first official visit to the Mandans ; coureurs de bois had preceded him 
1741  Bering’s voyage to mainland Alaska 
1742  Acceding to Pennsylvania’s wishes, Onondaga Chief Canasatego ordered the Delawares off their land; he fabricated an Iroquois conquest supposedly making the Delawares into “women”; this became a support for the myth of a giant Iroquois “empire” over other Indians 
1744  The Russian fur trade was extended to the Aleutian Islands 
1744-1748  King George’s War 
1749  Céloron de Blainville toured Ohio tribes to demand expulsion of Pennsylvania traders and was rebuffed 
1750  The Ohio Company of Virginia formed 
1752  Virginia’s treaty at Logstown (Ambridge, Pa.) with tribes resident in Ohio Country 
1753  French expelled Pennsylvania’s traders from Ohio Country; George Washington took Virginia’s demand that French abandon their forts in the Ohio Country 
1754  Washington capitulated to French at Fort Necessity; Albany Congress of English colonies with Iroquois 
1754-1763  The Seven Years War (or “French and Indian War”) 
1755  Braddock routed at Fort Duquesne; Vaudreuil instigated Indian raids on English outpost colonials 
1758  At a treaty at Easton (Pa.), Delawares agreed to leave the French in return for a promise of a boundary line between Indians and colonials; Forbes captured Fort Duquesne 
1763  Treaty of Paris took France out of North America by cession of claimed lands to Britain and Spain; “Pontiac’s Conspiracy” besieged British forts in the Old Northwest; Fort Pitt’s garrison created a smallpox epidemic among the Delawares; British crown proclaimed a boundary line between colonials and Indians 
1769  Captain Will’s Shawnees captured Daniel Boone and freed him after confiscating his goods and gear; Spaniards founded Mission San Diego as the first in a series extending northward along the California coast 
1773  Creeks ceded territory 
1774  Lord Dunmore warred against the Shawnees; Iroquois refused to help them; Mingo James Logan’s family massacred; the Quebec Act legislated a boundary between English colonies and crown lands reserved to the Indians 
1776  United States declared Independence; Cherokee rising suppressed by South Carolina and Virginia 
1776-1783  The War for American Independence 
1777 1778  The Battle of Oriskany set Iroquois against Iroquois; Iroquois grand council “covered the council fire”; Americans won the Battle of Saratoga Delawares proposed creation of an Indian state with themselves at its head; Congress ignored the proposal; Captain James Cook landed on Vancouver Island 
1779  Sullivan’s army destroyed Iroquois towns 
1783  Treaty of Paris recognized U.S. independence and ceded British territorial claims; it made no mention of Indian rights 
1784  Treaty of Fort Stanwix between Iroquois and U.S. 
1786  New Mexico’s Governor Bernardo de Galvez inaugurated policy of treaties and trade with Apacheans; Grigori Shelikhov began Russian conquest of Alaska 
1787  Northwest Ordinance provided for organization of Old Northwest into States 
1788  Kentucky lands claimed by Shawnees, ceded by Iroquois 
1790  General Harmar’s army defeated by western Indian confederation ; the Trade and Intercourse Act enacted 
1791  Vermont admitted as a State; General St. Clair’s army routed by western Indian confederation 
1792  Kentucky admitted as a State 
1794  Russian missionaries arrived on Kodiak Island; General Wayne defeated the western confederation at Fallen Timbers 
1795  The Treaty of Greenville re-established a boundary between Indian territories and the U.S. 
1796  Tennessee admitted as a State 
1799  Russian American Company granted monopoly of fur trade; most Russian missionaries died in a shipwreck; Onondaga Handsome Lake had a vision that began the Longhouse religion 


 
1802  Tlingit Indians destroyed New Archangel (Sitka) 
1803  William Henry Harrison’s Treaty of Fort Wayne obtained cession of 1,152,000 acres under dubious circumstances; Napoleon Buonaparte sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. 
1804-1806  Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the U.S. Northwest all the way to the Pacific Coast 
1805  Tlingit Indians destroyed Yakutat 
1807-1808  Black Hoof’s Shawnee farm and mission ruined by official decision after hopeful start 
1811  William Henry Harrison defeated Tenskwatawa’s Shawnees and allies at Tippecanoe 
1812-1815  “The War of 1812” 
1813  William Henry Harrison defeated the British and Indian allies at the Battle of the Thames in which Tecumseh was killed 
1814  Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, after which he forced cession of 20,000,000 acres 
1815  Jackson and Lafitte won the Battle of New Orleans 
1818  Jackson seized Pensacola (Florida) 
1820-1823  Mexico became independent and abolished the legal status of “Indian” by absorbing it into “citizen” 
1821  Stephen Austin brought “Anglos” to Texas; Hudson’s Bay Company acquired North West Company 
1823  Oneidas settled at Green Bay 
1825  Erie Canal opened 
1830  President Jackson’s administration enacted the Indian Removal Law to force Indians west of the Mississippi; ultimatum given to Choctaws at Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek 
1831  De Tocqueville observed Choctaws on their “trail of tears” 
1833  Japanese junk wrecked near Queen Charlotte’s Island after drifting across the Pacific 
1834-1836  California missions secularized by Mexico 
1835  Cherokees, at Treaty of New Echota, accepted removal west of the Mississippi 
1836  Cherokee “trail of tears”; Texas seceded from Mexico 
1837  Seminole Chief Osceola was seized at treaty negotiations and imprisoned; he died in prison 
1837-1838  Smallpox destroyed the Mandan Indians 
1838  The “blatantly corrupt” purchase of Seneca land by the Ogden Land Company 
1841  Migration began on the Oregon Trail 
1842  Allegany and Cattaraugus reservations were confirmed to the Seneca Indians 
1845  Texas admitted as a State 
1846-1848  War between the United States and Mexico 
1848  Mexico’s provinces north of the Rio Grande were ceded to the U.S. by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; most Senecas replaced their traditional hereditary government with elected officers; Tonawanda kept the traditional system 
1849  The gold rush to California began 
1854  Japan was opened to western trade by Admiral Matthew Perry 
1857  Seminoles accepted a cash payment to move west; massacre at Mountain Meadows (Utah) 
1861  Texas seceded from the United States to join the Confederate States 
1861-1865  The Civil War in the United States 
1867  Russia sold its North American colony to the U.S. 
1869
  Texas re-admitted to the United States 
1870  Congress substituted “agreements” for “treaties” 
1875  Comanches surrendered after war with the U.S. 
1876  Massacre of Custer’s cavalry troop at Little Big Horn 
1880  Full publication of Fr. Diego Durán’s manuscript about Mexican Indians 
1887  The General Allotment Act (Dawes Act) passed 
1890  U.S. Indian population at nadir; massacre of Chief Big Foot’s Sioux at Wounded Knee; U.S. census proclaimed “the end of the frontier” 
1893  Oklahoma Territory opened to homesteaders; Spanish-American War and cession to U.S. of Philippines and Puerto Rico


 
1900  Hawaii annexed as a U.S. territory 
1900-1910  18,000,000 acres of tribal lands taken by U.S. 
1924  American Indians made U.S. citizens 
1934  John Collier’s Indian Reorganization Act enacted 
1946  The Philippines given independence by U.S. Congress; the Indian Claims Commission enacted 
1950  BIA initiated a relocation program to move Indians from reservations to urban areas; by this date 13.4 percent of American Indians had become urban, mostly by personal action 
1953  “Termination” begun with 13 tribes released from federal supervision ; American Society for Ethnohistory founded 
1959  Hawaii admitted as the 50th State 
1971  Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act enacted 
1973  “Wounded Knee II” on the Pine Ridge reservation; Menominee termination rescinded 
1977  Final report of U.S. Congress American Indian Policy Review Commission 
1978  American Indian Religious Freedom Act enacted; U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Oliphant v. Suquamish leaned toward tribal termination 
1982  English translation of Sahagún’s manuscript about the Aztecs completed and published 
1990  At least half of U.S. Indians have become urban