Simplified Haplogrouping Chart
The Simplified Haplogroup Locale Chart
(PDF version has been removed)
Revised 1 April 2008
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The alphabetical designations/names of Y-DNA and mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups were assigned independently of one another by different researchers* . This is often confusing to newcomers who think, for example, that a B Y-DNA haplogroup and a B mtDNA haplogroup refer to the same locale and/or time frame. However, this is not the case – as can be seen in the below very simplified locale chart.
This is a locale chart – not a migration chart.
Any locale similarity (for example N) is merely accidental.
Entries in italics need sources.
See also the additional information at the below links (includes links to haplogroup descriptions).
|mtDNA Locale||Y-DNA Locale
(M/P/L=other nomenclature; source for most of these is the Genographic site as of 6 July 2007)
|E||East Asia||East Asia
|F||East Asia||Central Asia||F
|G||[India/Pakistan]→central Asia, Europe, Middle East. G2 (P15) in Europe and Middle East||G
|H||West Eurasia||West Eurasia
|I||West Eurasia||West Eurasia||I
|J||West Eurasia||West Eurasia
|K||West Eurasia||Australia/New Guinea||K
|L||Sub-Saharan Africa||East Asia||L
|M||East Asia||Australia/New Guinea||M
|N||East Asia||East Asia||N
|O||? [Oceania?]||East Asia||O
(shared ancestor from N)
|S||[Aboriginal Australia ?]||Indonesia, Oceania||S|
|T||West Eurasia||Middle East||T|
|U||West Eurasia||Clarification needed – these apparently are not in use at this time (see YCC, and ISOGG); Genographic does refer to YAP (Northeast Africa) but that is not known as Haplogroup Y
|X||Americas, via West Asia||X|
|Y||Central Asia (So. Siberia)||Y|
*After a period of initial confusion, the Y-DNA haplogroup names became better organized when the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) was formed. Hence the names now reflect the migration out of Africa, and the oldest Y-DNA haplogroup is A. mtDNA haplogroup names are still in flux and perhaps, in time, will be revised. In the present naming system, the oldest mtDNA haplogroup is L, found in sub-Saharan Africa. The mtDNA groups were identified and names before the Y-DNA groups and sequential development was not yet envisioned. The mtDNA Native American groups were put together alphabetically as A, B, C, and D; however, these letters are not closely related in the tree.
For additional information, see these links:
International Society of Genetic Genealogy
Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree
Includes descriptions of each Y-DNA haplogroup
Simple migration charts:
Not quite so simple migration charts:
Dr. J. Douglas McDonald – maps of Y and mtDNA haplogroups
Animated mtDNA migration slide show
More complete descriptions of most (but not all) haplogroups:
Genographic Project – Atlas of the Human Journey
– click on the Genetic Markers link at
At this time, Genographic includes all the Y-DNA haplogroups but does not include all mtDNA haplogroups (e.g., see above in italics).
Genographic Y-DNA Cross Reference Chart
(Y-DNA “M numbers” → Y-DNA Haplogroups) [M168=?]
Web site with links to more haplogroup information:
Haplogroup Discussion Group
Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors.
New York: Penguin Press, 2006. (Pages 57 and 59.)
Wells, Spencer. Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2006.
Yahoo Discussion Lists: ISOGG and DNA-Anthrogenealogy
The first draft was based on the charts in Wade and feedback was requested from participants of the above lists.
The current chart has been revised as stated below and the contributors are noted in ( ) .
In some cases Wells’ book was used to confirm suggestions.
Intro remarks – minor revisions (Alice Fairhurst)
2nd paragraph with was moved to end of chart.
mtDNA B – Oceania added (G. K. Bopp)
mtDNA D – East Asia added (G. K. Bopp)
Y-DNA J – East Asia changed to Middle East (James A. Honeychuck)
Y-DNA G – Based on FTDNA description
Y-DNA Haplogroups S and T – Press release: Scientists reshape Y chromosome haplogroup tree gaining new insights into human ancestry
Other – Saharan/Sub-Sahara changed to Sub-Saharan Africa (Steven Perkins)
Link to McDonald charts added
Some of the entries in italics are based on sources that need further investigation and/or that are not included here yet.
These suggestions from Vincent Vizachero have not yet been added (may appear in next revision):
mtDNA Haplogroup X is found in Europe at reasonably high frequency.
mtDNA – include North Africa under H, J, L, M, T, and U